History

3rd/2nd c. BC             
Celtic tribes migrate to regions later to become known as the Provinces of Noricum and Pannonia.

2nd c. BC                 
The Celtic kingdom Noricum (lat. regnum Noricum) extends into the area of future Carnuntum. A Celtic fortification (lat. oppidum) is built on the Braunsberg.

2nd half of 1st c. BC 
The oppidum is abandoned.

35 BC                          
Augustus launches his campaign across Pannonia.

15 BC                      
Noricum is made a Roman protectorate after Tiberius’ and Drusus’ alpine campaign.

6 AD                         
Tiberius reaches the Danube and erects a military winter camp (Vell. Pat. 2, 109, 5).

8−9 AD                  
The loss of three legions in the Teutoburg Forest marks the end of Augustus’ policy of expansion.

9 AD
The loss of three legions in the Teutoburg Forest marks the end of Augustus’ policy of expansion.

41−54 AD
First inscriptions of the legio XV Apollinaris furnish evidence of the legion camp built of wood and earth.

mid of 1st c. A.D.     
Early sanctuaries are constructed on the Pfaffenberg.

62 AD                      
The legio XV Apollinaris relinquishes Carnuntum to participate in the Jewish War. It is replaced by the legio X., soon thereafter the legio XXII is deployed in Carnuntum.

around 70 AD           
Earliest findings originating from the civilian city (House I).

73 AD                                              
Second inscription related to the legion camp, meanwhile built of stone.

81−96 AD                                    
Under Domitian’s rule, the auxiliary troop camp is erected of wood and earth. Most probably, the military Amphitheatre of Bad Deutsch-Altenburg is built during this early stage.

81−96 AD                                      
Domitian possibly dwells in Carnuntum.

103−107 AD                                   
Traian divides Pannonia, Carnuntum becomes the capital of Pannonia superior.

114 AD                                           
The legio XIV settles in the legionnaires’ camp where it remains until the downfall of the Romans in Carnuntum.

around 117/120 AD                            
Construction of the first Jupiter temple on the Pfaffenberg.

117−138 AD                                   
Hadrian bestows the city rights upon Carnuntum: Municipium Aelium Carnuntum. According to the inscription of Zmaragdus, the Civilian City's Amphitheatre in Petronell is erected.

136 AD                                          
Lucius Aelius Caesar (adoptive son and presumptive successor of Hadrian) pays a visit to Carnuntum. He donates a Heroon for Antinoos located on the Pfaffenberg.

around 150 AD                              
First temples are built in the Eastern part of the canabae legionis. In the civil town, House I is constructed of stone.

167 AD                                          
Inception of the wars between Romans and the Germanic people.

167/68 AD                                     
Marcus Aurelius blocks the Alps and deploys new legions.

168/69 AD                                      
Lucius Verus, coruler of Marcus Aurelius, dies unexpectedly.

170 AD                                           

The Romans’ attack against the German tribes fails, the frontier to the Roman Empire (lat. limes) is ruptured. 20.000 Romans are killed, among them Carnuntum’s Governor.

170/71 AD                                   
Germanic tribes besiege Aquileia in vain.

171 AD                                           
The Germanic tribes are driven away, Marcus Aurelius arrives in Carnuntum. The Roman fort is extended in order to house a larger number of soldiers.

172 AD                                          
Marcus Aurelius commissions the construction of a bridge across the Danube and launches a retaliation campaign against the Germanic tribes which is depicted on the Column of Marcus Aurelius in Rome.

172/73 AD                                    
Skirmishes with the Germanic tribes. Marcus Aurelius completes the second book of his philosophical “Meditations” in Carnuntum.

177−180 AD                                 
Renewed skirmishes with the Germanic tribes.

180 AD                                           
Marcus Aurelius succumbs to the plague on his way back to Rome in Sirmium (today: Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia).

184 AD                                           
Commodus ends the Germanic wars, the Romans retreat behind the other side of the Danube.

9 April 193 AD                         
The Governor of Pannonia, Lucius Septimius Severus, is proclaimed emperor by his troops.

194 AD                                          
Carnuntum is raised to the status of a colonia with major city rights and now carries the name Colonia Septimia Aurelia Antoniniana Carnuntum. Around the turn of the century, Carnuntum reached its heyday with approximately 50.000 inhabitants.

before 200 AD                               
Construction of the Dolichenus sanctuary on the Pfaffenbrunnwiese in Petronell.

around 200 AD                                    
Construction of the large Temple II (probably a Dolichenum) on the Pfaffenberg.

around 200 AD                                   
Construction of the Roman forum baths; the Roman fort and the legionnaires’ camp are rearranged and renovated. Carnuntum is at the peak of its development.

226−228 AD                                 
Cassius Dio Cocceianus is Governor of Carnuntum.

253−268 AD                                  
The Roman fort is abandoned under the reign of Gallienus.

260/261 AD                                    
Regalianus (Governor of Pannonia superior) and his wife Dryantilla are elected emperor and empress by the troops of Carnuntum, but not recognized by the Senate in Rome. Their rule lasts but a few weeks.

starting in 260 AD                              
Barbarians cross the Danube causing tremendous destruction in Noricum.

292−294 AD                                 
Wars of the Sarmats in Pannonia inferior.

293 AD                                            
Diocletian introduces the First Tetrarchy made up of Maximianus, Galerius Constantius I. Chlorus and Diocletian himself.

after 300 AD                                
Refurbishment of House I and II as well as the Villa Urbana.

305 AD                                           
Diocletian resigns after settling his succession. In 306 A.D. major conflict is caused by the unexpected death of Constantius I. Chlorus.

308 AD                                        
Emperors’ Conference in Carnuntum. Diocletian’s succession is arranged, Constantin is accepted into the tetrachy. In the years to follow, he undermines his corulers and finally becomes absolute ruler in 321 A.D.

313 AD                                           
Last retraceable inscription on the Pfaffenberg. Licinius and Constantin proclaim the ‚Edict of Milan’ legalizing Christianity alongside other religions.

325 AD                                            
Council of Nicaea (today: East Anatolia). A bishop from Pannonia is also part of the reunion, Christianity thus seems to already be well organized.

351−361 AD                                  
A violent earthquake causes serious damage in Carnuntum.

375 AD                                            
Emperor Valentinian visits Carnuntum. Refurbishment of the legion camp, retaliation campaign in the territories inhabited by the Germanic tribes.

376 AD                                            
The Huns cross the Volga and expel a great number of local peoples. The so-called Migration Period commences.

378 AD                                         
The Romans are defeated near Adrianopolis, the Goths settle in the Balkans.

380 AD                                         
The Goths arrive in Pannonia and are accepted into the Roman army.

391 AD                                          
The "Edict of Theodosius" promotes Christianity to state religion.

395 AD                                          
The limes implodes, Carnuntum abandoned. A few civilians withdraw into the legion camp, the Roman forum baths and parts of the civilian town. The Danube fleet is moved to Vindobona (Vienna).

around 400 AD                                   
The Vandals loot Carnuntum.

401/02 AD                                      
The Visigoths loot Carnuntum.

405/08 AD                                       
The Ostrogoths arrive in Pannonia. In 408 A.D., they move on to Italy.

around 430 AD                                   
Last mention of Carnuntum in the administrative information notitia dignitatum.

433 AD                                           
Pannonia is contractually acquired by the Huns, the larger part of the Roman population leave the city and its surroundings.

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