Carnuntum once ranked among the most important cities of the Roman province Pannonia. Built as a stronghold against the Barbaricum on the other side of the Danube Limes, it also was a crossover point of the Amber Road and occupied a major strategic, political and economic role.


1: Roman quarter 2: Amphitheater Civil City 3: School of Gladiators 4: Heathens Gate 5: Amphitheater Military City

Initially a temporary winter camp, Carnuntum grew between the 1st and 4th century AD into a city of about 50,000 and became the capital of the Roman province of Pannonia Superior. Besides the legionary fortress and the military city surrounding it, a flourishing civilian city (municipium) also formed outside the military zone.

The limes, the northern border of the Roman Empire, was marked in Carnuntum by the Danube. Carnuntum developed into a significant Roman city thanks to its militarily vital location for securing the border of the empire but also because of its vicinity to key trade routes.


6 AD / Tiberius, who later became emperor, erects a winter camp in the Carnuntum area; beginning of Roman presence in Carnuntum.

41 to 54 AD / The military camp is erected.

from ca. 70 AD / Settlement begins in the civilian city (in the area of the Roman city quarter in Petronell-Carnuntum).

81 to 96 AD / Under Emperor Domitian the auxiliary fort and the amphitheatre in the canabae are established.

Around 124 AD / Under Emperor Hadrian Carnuntum becomes a municipality – Municipium Aelium Karnuntum. At this time the amphitheatre in the civilian city is erected.

171 to 173 AD / Emperor Marcus Aurelius stays in Carnuntum where he completes the second book of his “Meditations”.

9.4.193 AD / Lucius Septimius Severus is proclaimed emperor in Carnuntum.

194 AD / Carnuntum is awarded the status of colony – Colonia Septimia Aurelia Antoniniana Karnuntum.

11.11.308 AD / Emperors’ Conference in Carnuntum.

433 AD / The province of Pannonia is ceded to the Huns.

End of 19th C. / Start of systematic research into Carnuntum which has lasted to the present day.

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